Schizoid Personality Disorder
DSM-IV defines Schizoid Personality Disorder (SZPD) as a “pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of expression of emotions in interpersonal settings, beginning by early adulthood”. Individuals with Schizoid Personality Disorder demonstrate slight interest in intimacy, are uninterested about getting close to others, and do not seem to upkeep whether they draw approval or criticism. They can demonstrate limited affect, seem cold and aloof, and have concern expressing rage; when they let themselves, though, they expose that they have sore feelings, generally connected to their social worries. Schizoid Personality Disorder may co-occur with STPD, PPD, and avoidant PD. S.
One clinical sample, which was mostly boys, presented normal to superior intelligence, but they were not successful educationally and socially. They had five fundamental clinical features: impaired empathy and emotional detachment; solitariness; inflexibility of mental set and the single-minded chase of special interests; increased sensitivity, with random paranoid ideas; and strange or odd styles of communication, with over-communicativeness, especially among the girls. More than half the subjects were outgoing, some were reserved and silent, and some had elective mutism. They could not adapt socially, and when pushed to do so, they could break with weeping, rage, and aggression.
The subjects were monitored into adulthood. Of the 32 children who had been identified as schizoid, 75 percent met the criteria for STPD and two became persons with schizophrenia. Their total adjustment was marginally worse than that of others in the clinic, as they endured more private, lacking in empathy, and oversensitive, and they persistent odd styles of communicating and restricted interests. The children defined as schizoid were notable mostly by their strange fantasies, their special interests, and their being defined as loners; they were possibly to have precise developmental delays affecting language rather than motor development.
They show features of Asperger’s Disorder but present a higher level of intelligence than is generally attributed to that syndrome. They would not be diagnosed with STPD, though, as they do not present the specific quality of oddness in behavior, relatedness, or interests. Additionally, while they may not cooperate with other children in what would be considered a normal way, they are not vigorously avoided—just because they do not show extreme oddness however they might be seen as different, even nerdy.
Diagnostic Criteria for Schizoid Personality Disorder
A. A pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of expression of emotions in interpersonal settings, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following:
(1) neither desires nor enjoys close relationships, including being part of a family
(2) almost always chooses solitary activities
(3) has little, if any, interest in having sexual experiences with another person
(4) takes pleasure in few, if any, activities
(5) lacks close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives
(6) appears indifferent to the praise or criticism of others
(7) shows emotional coldness, detachment, or flattened affectivity
B. Does not occur exclusively during the course of Schizophrenia, a Mood Disorder with Psychotic Features, another Psychotic Disorder, or a Pervasive Developmental Disorder and is not due to the direct physiological effects of a general medical condition.